Sentence Completion

Method suitability

Study type

Field studies
XLab studies
XOnline studies

Development phase

Early prototypes
XFunctional prototypes
XProducts on market

Studied period of experience

Before usage
An episode
XLong-term UX

Evaluator / Info provider

UX experts
XOne user at a time
Groups of users
Pairs of users




XWeb services
XPC software
XMobile software
XHardware designs


XTrained researcher
Special equipment


After using a system, a participant is handed a set of beginnings of sentences that she then completes. The beginnings of the sentences trigger the user think the experiential aspects of product use, e.g."When I use this product, I feel myself…", or "The appearance of this product is…"


The participants can freely express themselves so the data is more reliable than traditional questionnaires (which may not provide the right options).
A fun method both for participants and researchers.
The tests are easily administered
Can be used to assess motivations
or attitudes


Data analysis is quite laborious.

References describing the method

An example from
Kujala, S. & Nurkka, P.: PRODUCT SYMBOLISM IN DESIGNING FOR USER EXPERIENCE. Proc. Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces 2009. Compiegne, France.

1 comment to Sentence Completion

  • Sari Kujala

    Here are two more recent references:

    Kujala, S., Walsh, T., Nurkka, T., Crisan, M. (2013). Sentence Completion for Understanding Users and Evaluating User Experience. Interacting with Computers, 26, 3, 238-255.

    Kujala, S. and Nurkka, P. (2012). Sentence Completion for Evaluating Symbolic Meaning. International Journal of Design, 6, 3, 15-25.

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