Presence questionnaire

Method suitability

Study type

XField studies
XLab studies
Online studies
XQuestionnaire

Development phase

Concepts
Early prototypes
XFunctional prototypes
XProducts on market

Studied period of experience

Before usage
XSnapshots
XAn episode
Long-term UX

Evaluator / Info provider

UX experts
XOne user at a time
Groups of users
Pairs of users

Data

Qualitative
XQuantitative

Applications

Web services
PC software
Mobile software
Hardware designs
XOther:

Requirements

Trained researcher
Special equipment

Summary

Presence is defined as the subjective experience of being in one place or environment, even when one is physically situated in another.) The authors of the scale state that presence is a normal awareness phenomenon that requires directed attention and is based in the interaction between sensory stimulation, environmental factors that encourage involvement and enable immersion, and internal tendencies to become involved. Focus of the PQ is to measure presence in virtual environments and games. In addition the immersive tendencies questionnaire (ITQ) was developed to measure differences in the tendencies of individuals to experience presence.

Strengths

well studied instrument

Weaknesses

- same drawbacks as with all subjective scales; use outside games, virtual environments etc is not clear

References describing the method

Witmer and Singer, Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire, Presence, Vol. 7, No. 3, June 1998, 225–240

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