Presence is defined as the subjective experience of being in one place or environment, even when one is physically situated in another.) The authors of the scale state that presence is a normal awareness phenomenon that requires directed attention and is based in the interaction between sensory stimulation, environmental factors that encourage involvement and enable immersion, and internal tendencies to become involved. Focus of the PQ is to measure presence in virtual environments and games. In addition the immersive tendencies questionnaire (ITQ) was developed to measure differences in the tendencies of individuals to experience presence.
well studied instrument
- same drawbacks as with all subjective scales; use outside games, virtual environments etc is not clear
Witmer and Singer, Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire, Presence, Vol. 7, No. 3, June 1998, 225–240
References describing the method