Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS)

Method suitability

Study type

XField studies
XLab studies
XOnline studies
XQuestionnaire

Development phase

Concepts
Early prototypes
XFunctional prototypes
XProducts on market

Studied period of experience

Before usage
XSnapshots
XAn episode
Long-term UX

Evaluator / Info provider

UX experts
XOne user at a time
Groups of users
Pairs of users

Data

Qualitative
XQuantitative

Applications

Web services
PC software
Mobile software
Hardware designs
XOther: ?

Requirements

Trained researcher
Special equipment

Summary

The Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) is a psychometric scale developed to measure the largely independent constructs of positive and negative affect both as states and traits. Positive and negative affect have been shown to relate to other personality states and traits, such as anxiety. PANAS was originally developed for more clinical settings, but is also used now in evaluation studies in which moods of users might be affected (e.g. studies around effects of lighting, of entertainment content, etc).

Strengths

+ validated instrument; used in many studies, many publications

Weaknesses

- same drawbacks as with all subjective scales - originally used for a different setting (clinical setting)

References describing the method

http://www2.psychology.uiowa.edu/faculty/Watson/PANAS-X.pdf
many other publications exist

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